The scalp is typically portrayed as having five layers, which can helpfully be recognized as a mnemonic:
S: The skin on the head from which head hair develops. It contains various sebaceous organs and hair follicles.
C: Connective tissue. A thick subcutaneous layer of fat and sinewy tissue that lies underneath the skin, containing the nerves and vessels of the scalp. hair scalp
A: The aponeurosis called epicranial aponeurosis (or galea aponeurotica) is the following layer. It is an extreme layer of thick sinewy tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitalis posteriorly.
L: The free areolar connective tissue layer gives a simple plane of partition between the upper three layers and the pericranium. In scalping the scalp is detached through this layer. It additionally gives a plane of access in craniofacial medical procedure and neurosurgery. This layer is here and there alluded to as the “threat zone” due to the simplicity by which irresistible specialists can spread through it to messenger veins which at that point channel into the skull. The free areolar tissue in this layer is comprised of arbitrary collagen I packages, collagen III. It will likewise be rich in glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and will be established of more lattice than strands. This layer permits the more shallow layers of the scalp to move about according to the pericranium.
P: The pericranium is the periosteum of the skull bones and gives nourishment deep down and the limit with respect to fix. It very well might be lifted from the issue that remains to be worked out evacuation of bone windows (craniotomy).
The clinically significant layer is the aponeurosis. Scalp gashes through this layer imply that the “mooring” of the shallow layers is lost and expanding of the injury happens which would require stitching. This can be accomplished with basic or vertical sleeping cushion stitches utilizing a non-absorbable material, which are consequently taken out at around days 7-10.
The blood supply of the scalp is through five sets of corridors, three from the outside carotid and two from the inward carotid:
the supratrochlear conduit to the midline brow. The supratrochlear course is a part of the ophthalmic part of the interior carotid conduit.
the supraorbital conduit to the sidelong brow and scalp as far up as the vertex. The supraorbital supply route is a part of the ophthalmic part of the interior carotid course.
the shallow transient vein emits frontal and parietal branches to supply a large part of the scalp
the occipital course which runs posteriorly to supply a significant part of the back part of the scalp
the back auricular course, a part of the outer carotid corridor, rises behind the auricle to supply the scalp above and behind the auricle.
Since the dividers of the veins are solidly joined to the sinewy tissue of the shallow fascial layer, cut finishes of vessels here don’t promptly withdraw; even a little scalp wound may drain abundantly.